Diabetic-ketoacidosis: Diabetic-ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe form of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis and ketosis. DKA is typically due to a combination of low endogenous insulin levels (i.e.: secondary to DM) as well as elevated counter-regulatory hormone levels (i.e.: glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines, growth hormone). This increase in counter-regulatory hormones is only possible in the presence of a concurrent disease, so it is of utmost importance to search for the underlying disease when a diagnosis of DKA has been made. In dogs, the most commonly reported concurrent diseases are urinary tract infections, pancreatitis, and Cushing’s disease. Cats commonly have hepatic lipidosis, pancreatitis, infections (viral, bacterial) or cancer as their secondary disease process.